Viscosity Measurements of Milk to Investigate Risk Factors for Milk Leakage in Dairy Cows Before and After Dry-Off
Keywords:milk leakage, dairy cow, dynamic viscosity, dry-off, milk leakage, dairy cow, dynamic viscosity, dry-off
Milk leakage is a prevalent phenomenon in dairy cows and it is known to negatively affect udder health, as it increases the risk for clinical mastitis and new intramammary (IMM) infections. The determination of risk factors for milk leakage might be the first step towards the development of potential prevention measures. Therefore, the objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the teat canal diameter, IMM pressure, milk temperature, milk composition, dry-off and antibiotic dry cow therapy on the occurrence of milk leakage in dairy cows. Two Ubbelohde viscometers (type no. 50100 and 50110 according to DIN 51 562 Part 1; SI Analytics GmbH, Mainz, Germany) were used to mimic the teat canal diameter, IMM pressure and milk temperature by suitable choice of the capillary diameter, hydrostatic pressure and milk sample temperature. Nineteen quarter foremilk samples each were collected on the day of dry-off and 2d after dry-off in cows dried off with and without antibiotic dry-cow therapy, respectively. All milk samples were analysed for milk composition (protein, fat, lactose, somatic cell count (SCC)) by the local Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The viscometers were used to measure the efflux time of all milk samples and afterwards the dynamic viscosity was calculated on basis of the Hagen–Poiseuille equation. Parameters that lead to shorter efflux times and smaller dynamic viscosities were considered as potential risk factors for milk leakage in vivo, because the milk could flow faster and more easily. In our study, the efflux time was shorter at wider capillary diameter, higher hydrostatic pressure, higher milk sample temperature and lower concentrations of fat and protein (P < 0.001). The dynamic viscosity was determined to be smaller at higher milk sample temperature and lower concentrations of fat and protein (P < 0.001). These results indicate that wider teat canal diameter, higher IMM pressure, higher milk temperature and lower concentrations of fat and protein might be risk factors for milk leakage in dairy cows.
Klaas IC, Enevoldsen C, Ersbøll AK, Tölle U. Cow-related risk factors for milk leakage. J Dairy Sci. 2005; 88:128-136.
Persson Waller K, Westermark T, Ekman T, Svennersten-Sjaunja K. Milk leakage—an increased risk in automatic milking systems. J Dairy Sci. 2003; 86:3488-3497.
Bertulat S, Fischer-Tenhagen C, Suthar V, Möstl E, Isaka N, Heuwieser W. Measurement of fecal glucocorticoid metabolites and evaluation of udder characteristics to estimate stress after sudden dry-off in dairy cows with different milk yields. J Dairy Sci. 2013; 96:3774-3787.
Schukken YH, Vanvliet J, Vandegeer D, Grommers FJ. A randomized blind trial on dry cow antibiotic infusion in a low somatic cell count herd. J Dairy Sci. 1993; 76:2925-2930.
Waage S, Ødegaard SA, Lund A, Brattgjerd S, Røthe T. Case-control study of risk factors for clinical mastitis in postpartum dairy heifers. J Dairy Sci. 2001; 84:392-399.
Waage S, Sviland S, Ødegaard SA. Identification of risk factors for clinical mastitis in dairy heifers. J Dairy Sci. 1998; 81:1275-1284.
Peeler EJ, Green MJ, Fitzpatrick JL, Morgan KL, Green LE. Risk factors associated with clinical mastitis in low somatic cell count British dairy herds. J Dairy Sci. 2000; 83:2464-2472.
Schukken YH, Grommers FJ, van de Geer D, Erb HN, Brand A. Risk factors for clinical mastitis in herds with a low bulk milk somatic cell count. 2. Risk factors for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. J Dairy Sci. 1991; 74:826-832.
Rovai M, Kollmann MT, Bruckmaier RM. Incontinentia lactis: Physiology and anatomy conducive to milk leakage in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2007; 90:682-690.
Tucker CB, Lacy-Hulbert SJ, Webster JR. Effect of milking frequency and feeding level before and after dry off on dairy cattle behavior and udder characteristics. J Dairy Sci. 2009; 92:3194-3203.
Paulrud CO. Infrared thermography and ultrasonography to indirectly monitor the influence of linear type and overmilking on teat tissue recovery. Vet Res Commun. 2005; 29:215-245.
McDonald JS. Radiographic method for anatomic study of the teat canal: changes between milking periods. Am J Vet Res. 1975; 36:1241-1242.
Hamana K, Motomura Y, Yasuda N, Kamimura S. Bovine teat morphology and ultrasonic tomography related to milk quality and bacteria. Pages 377-380 in Proc. of the XVIIIth World Buiatrics Congress. 1994; Bologna, Italy.
Klein D, Flöck M, Khol JL, Franz S, Stüger HP, Baumgartner W. Ultrasonographic measurement of the bovine teat: breed differences, and the significance of the measurements for udder health. J Dairy Res. 2005; 72:296-302.
Lacy-Hulbert SJ, Woolford MW, Nicholas GD, Prosser CG, Stelwagen K. Effect of milking frequency and pasture intake on milk yield and composition of late lactation cows. J Dairy Sci. 1999; 82:1232-1239.
Bauman DE, Griinari JM. Nutritional regulation of milk fat synthesis. Annu Rev Nutr. 2003; 23:203-227.
Quist MA, LeBlanc SJ, Hand KJ, Lazenby D, Miglior F, Kelton DF. Milking-to-milking variability for milk yield, fat and protein percentage, and somatic cell count. J Dairy Sci. 2008; 91:3412-3423.
Heck JML, van Valenberg HJF, Dijkstra J, van Hooijdonk ACM. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition. J Dairy Sci. 2009; 92:4745-4755.
Lambertz C, Sanker C, Gauly M. Climatic effects on milk production traits and somatic cell score in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows in different housing systems. J Dairy Sci. 2014; 97:319-329.
Chen B, Lewis MJ, Grandison AS. Effect of seasonal variation on the composition and properties of raw milk destined for processing in the UK. Food Chem. 2014; 158:216-223.
Charton C, Larroque H, Robert-Granié C, Pomiès D, Leclerc H, Friggens NC, Guinard-Flament J. Individual responses of dairy cows to a 24-hour milking interval. J Dairy Sci. 2016; 99:3103-3112.
Hurley WL. Mammary function during the nonlactating period: enzyme, lactose, protein concentrations, and pH of mammary secretions. J Dairy Sci. 1987; 70:20-28.
Russell WMS, Burch RL. The principles of humane experimental technique. 1959; Methuen, London, UK.
Alcântara LAP, Fontan RCI, Bonomo RCF, Souza EC, Sampaio VS, Pereira RG. Density and dynamic viscosity of bovine milk affect by temperature and composition. Int J Food Eng. 2012; 8:1556-3758.
McDonald JS. Radiographic method for anatomic study of the teat canal: changes with lactation age. Am J Vet Res. 1968; 29:1207-1210.
Capuco AV, Mein GA, Nickerson SC, Jack LJW, Wood DL, Bright SA, Aschenbrenner RA, Miller RH, Bitman J. Influence of pulsationless milking on teat canal keratin and mastitis. J Dairy Sci. 1994; 77:64-74.
Paulrud CO, Clausen S, Andersen PE, Rasmussen MD. Infrared thermography and ultrasonography to indirectly monitor the influence of linear type and overmilking on teat tissue recovery. Acta Vet Scand. 2005; 46:137-147.
West JW, Mullinix BG, Bernard JK. Effects of hot, humid weather on milk temperature, dry matter intake, and milk yield of lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2003; 86:232-242.
Mayer H, Bruckmaier R, Schams D. Lactational changes in oxytocin release, intramammary pressure and milking characteristics in dairy cows. J Dairy Res. 1991; 58:159-169.
Bruckmaier RM, Hilger M. Milk ejection in dairy cows at different degrees of udder filling. J Dairy Res. 2001; 68:369-376.
Dohoo IR, Martin SW, Stryhn H. Veterinary Epidemiologic Research. 2nd ed. University of Prince Edward Island. 2009; Charlottetown, PEI, Canada.
Zobel G, Leslie K, Weary DM, von Keyserlingk MAG. Gradual cessation of milking reduces milk leakage and motivation to be milked in dairy cows at dry-off. J Dairy Sci. 2013; 96:5064-5071.
Rohm H, Müller A, Hend-Milnera I. Effects of composition on raw milk viscosity. Milchwissenschaft. 1996; 51:259-261.
McCarthy OJ. Rheology of milk and dairy products | Liquid products and semi-solid products. Pages 2445-2456 in Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences. 2002; Elsevier, Oxford, UK.