A Survey on Selected Quality Parameters of Buffalo Milk Samples Collected from Consumer Markets of Three Different Central Governorates in Egypt


  • F.M.F. Elshaghabee
  • M.I. Abdel-Hamid
  • H.-G. Walte


safety, aflatoxin M1, codex, HACCP, ISO 22000, milk quality


One hundred and twenty samples of raw buffalo milk were collected at consumer markets in central Cairo, Giza and Qualubya, Egypt. All samples were analysed chemically using Lactoscan, and microbiologically using the pour plate technique. Also, levels of aflatoxin (AF) M1 were assessed by using a commercial ELISA kit. The mean values were - 0.476±0.07 °C, 5.89±0.79 %, 4.13±0.53 %, 4.25±0.53 %, 0.69±0.14 %, and 14.59±1.39 % for freezing point, fat, protein, lactose, ash and total solids respectively. Bacteriological enumeration of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, coliform, spore forming bacteria and psychrotrophic bacteria were 5.37±0.78, 3.77±0.90, 2.78±0.36 and 2.84±0.39 Log CFU/ml respectively. The median concentration of AF M1 in all samples was 44.31 ng/L. Our results indicate that there is an essential need for improving the hygienic conditions in the production of raw milk.

Author Biography

H.-G. Walte



Adesiyun A, Webb L, Rahman S. Microbiological quality of raw cow’s milk at collection center of Trindad. J Food Protect 1995; 58: 139-146.

Javaid SB, Gadahi JA, Khaskeli M, Bhutto MB, Kumbher S, Panhwar AH. Physical and chemical quality of market milk sold at Tandojam. Pakistan. Pak. Vet. J. 2009; 29: 27-31.

Fundora O, Gonzalez ME, Lezcano O, Montejo A, Pompa N, Enriquez AV. A comparative study of milk composition and stability of Murrah river buffaloes and Holstein cows grazing star grass. Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science, 2009; 35: 219–222.

Amarjit SN, Toshihiko N. Role of buffalo in the socioeconomic development of rural Asia: Current status and future prospectus. Anim Sci J, 2003; 74: 443–445.

Fox PF, McSweeney PLH. Dairy Chemistry and Biochemistry. Blackie Academic & Professional, London: 1998; 443-47.

Hofi AA, Rifaat, ID, Khorshid, M A. Studies on some physicochemical properties of Egyptian buffaloes and cows’ milk. Indian J. dairy sci, 1966; 19: 113-117.

Egyptian Standards. Milk and milk products, part 1: Raw milk. Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality, 2005, Egypt.

Coni E, Di Pasquale M, Fava L, Bocca A. A pilot survey on the freezing point of raw and heat-treated Italian milk. Ital J Food Sci, 1997; 9: 239-248.

Kuczaj M. Inter-relations between year season and raw milk hygienic quality indices. Electronic Journal of Polish Agricultural Universities, Animal Husbandry, 2001; 4: 1-10.

Mayerhof H J, Marshall CH, White M. Characterization of a heat-stable protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens P 26. Appl Microbiol, 1973; 25: 44-50.

Boor K J, Brown DP, Murphy SC, Kozlowski SM, Bandler DK. Microbiological and Chemical Quality of Raw Milk in New York State. J Dairy Sci.1998; 81: 1743–1748.

Boycheva S, Dimitrov T, Tsankova M, Iliev T. Investigation on microflora of buffalo milk. Bulg J Agric Sci, 2009; 8: 279–282.

Creppy EE. Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett. 2002; 127: 19-28.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some naturally occurring substances: food items and constituents heterocyclic aromatic amines and mycotoxins, France: Lyon., 1993; 56:245-395.

Stoloff L, Van Egmond HP, Park DL. Rationales for establishment of limits and regulations for mycotoxins. Food Addit Contam, 1991; 8: 213-222.

Egyptian Regulations. Maximum Limits for Mycotoxin in Foods. Part L Aflatoxins E.S. Egyptian Organization for Standardization and Quality Control, 1990; 1875-1900.

Codex Alimentarius Commission . General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Food and Feed (CODEX STAN 193-1995), Amended 2016.

Walte H-G, Schwake-Anduschus C, Geisen R, Fritsche J. Aflatoxin: food chain transfer from feed to milk. J Consum Prot Food Saf., 2016; 11: 295-297.

Ling ER. A text book of dairy chemistry. 1963, Vol. 2, 3rd ed. Chapman and hall Ltd.37. Esser Str., London, W.C.Z.

Oxoid Manual. The Oxoid manual of culture media, ingredients and other laboratory services. 1982, Oxide limited, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England.

Najdenova N, Dimitrov T. Technological qualities of buffalo milk from the Bulgarian Murrah breed for production of Bulgarian yoghurt. J Anim Sci, 2003; 40: 33–35.

Supino MT, Gallo M, Capo G, Morena C, Durante G, Galiero G. Buffalo milk produced in the province of Salerno: Evaluation of sanitary and product parameters. Bubalus Bubalis, 2004; 10: 22–26.

Han B-Z, Meng Y, Li M, Yang Y-X, Ren Fa-Z, Zeng Q-K, Nout MJR. A survey on the microbiological and chemical composition of buffalo milk in China. Food Control, 2007; 18: 742–746.

Suman CL, Saxena, M M, Pandey HS, Dubey PC, Singh, R., Sanyal MK, Yadav, P. L.. Some factors affecting milk constituents yield of Murrah buffalo. Indian Vet J, 1998; 75: 176–177.

Gomaa NF, Hashish M, Kassem MM. Quality assessment of milk in Alexandria. Bulletin of High Institute of Public Health, 2008; 38: 291-305.

Ombarak R A, ELbagory AM. Bacteriological Quality and Safety of Raw Cow’s and Buffalo’s Milk Sold in Menoufia Governorate, Egypt. Minufiya Vet J, 2015; 9:101:113.

Fook, YC, Aminah, A, Mohd, KA. Bacteriological quality and safety of raw milk in Malaysia. Food Microbiol, 2004; 21: 535–541.

EU specification 92/46/EEC. Laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milk-based products. Council of the European Union, 1995; 1-39.

Collins, EB. Heat resistant psychotrophic microorganisms. J Dairy Sci, 1981; 64: 157-160.

Ivy, RA, Ranieri M L, Martin, N H, den Bakker HC, Xavier BM, Wiedmann M, Boor KJ. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant sporeformers associated with fluid milk production and processing. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2012; 78: 1853-1864.

Durak, MZ, Fromm HI, Huck JR, Zadoks RN, Boor KJ. Development of molecular typing methods for Bacillus spp. and Paenibacillus spp. isolated from fluid milk products. J. Food Sci., 2004; 71: M50-M56.

Waes G. Aerobic mesophilic spores in raw milk. Milchwissenschaft, 1976; 31: 521–525.

Phillips JD, Griffiths MW. Factors contributing to the seasonal variation of bacillus spp. in pasteurized dairy products. J Appl Bacteriol, 1986; 61: 275-285.

Te Giffel MC, Wagendorp A, Herrewegh A, Driehuis F. Bacterial spores in silage and raw milk. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek., 2002; 81: 625-630.

Zucali M, Bava L, Colombini S, Brasca M, Decimo M, Morandi S, Tamburini A, Crovetto GM. Management practices and forage quality affecting the contamination of milk with anaerobic spore-forming bacteria. J. Sci. Food Agric., 2015; 95: 1294-1302.

Craven HM, Macauley BJ. Microorganisms in pasteurized milk after refrigerated storage. 1. Identification of types. Aust. J. Dairy Technol., 2002; 47: 38–45

Cempírková R. Contamination of cow’s raw milk by psychrotrophic and mesophilic microflora in relation to selected factors. Czech J Anim Sci, 2002; 52: 387–393.

Cempírková R, Mikulová M, Trávníček J. Counts of psychrotrophic lipolytic bacteria in cow’s raw milk samples from the aspect of technological quality. Journal of Agrobiology, 2009; 26: 113-121.

Yamazi A, Moreira T, Cavicchioli V, Burin R, Nero L. Long cold storage influences the microbiological quality of raw goat milk. Small Ruminant Res, 2013; 113: 205-210.

European Commission Regulation (2010). No. 165 , of 26 February 2010, amending Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs as regards aflatoxins. Official Journal of the European Commission L50 8-12.

Amer AA, Ibrahim E M A . Determination of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and traditional cheeses retailed in Egyptian markets. J Toxicol Environ Health Sci, 2010; 2: 50-53.

Shakar E, Elsharkawy E. Occurrence and the level of contamination of aflatoxin M1 in raw, pasteurized, and ultra-heat treated buffalo milk consumed in Sohag and Assiut, upper Egypt. J Environ Occup Sci, 2014; 3: 136-140.