Development of a novel white soft cheese using kefir starter cultures: Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties
Keywords:Kefir, Starter cultures, White soft cheese, Lactobacilli, Probiotics
Kefir health promoting effects have created increasing demands and research efforts to develop new kefir products. So, this study aimed at developing novel functional white-soft-cheeses (WSC) using kefir cultures. Kefir WSCs were produced from cow’s milk with and without thyme. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory criteria were examined during storage at 4oC for 15 days. Total aerobes, yeasts, and lactococci variably decreased in counts, whereas lactobacilli count significantly increased in both cheeses. Kefir addition significantly affected acidity, pH and proteolytic criteria. Kefir cheese without thyme scored highest sensory acceptability. Nevertheless, final counts of kefir cultures (>5x107CFU/ml) were far above the minimum therapeutic requirements (106 CFU/ml), and kefir cheeses sensory scored good acceptability, indicating the suitability of WSC as a potential vehicle of kefir. The current results indicate a new and interesting perspective in the development of new functional foods through using of kefir starters in various dairy and non-dairy products with acceptable sensorial criteria, and hence expand the range of kefir containing products for the consumers around the world.
Akin A, Aydemir S, Kocak C, Yildiz MA. Changes of free fatty acid contents and sensory properties of white pickled cheese during ripening. Food Chemistry. 2003; 80:77–83.
Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). Official methods of analysis: Acidity of cheese. 33.7.14. Method 920.124, moisture in cheese. 33.7.04. Method 948.12, ash of cheese. 33.7.07. Method 935.42. 1995.
Assadi MM, Abdolmaleki F, Mokarrame RR. Application of whey in fermented beverage production using kefir starter culture. Nutrition and Food Science. 2008; 38:121–127.
Atanasova J, Moncheva P, Ivanova I. Proteolytic and antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria grown in goat milk. Biotechnology, Biotechnological Equipment. 2014; 28(6):1073-1078.
Awaisheh SS. Probiotic food products classes, types, and processing. In: Everlon CR. (ed.) Probiotics. Intech Publisher, Croatia. 2012. P. 551-582.
Awaisheh SS. Development of probiotic soft cheese manufactured using goat’s milk with the addition of thyme. Milchwissenschaft. 2011; 66:51–54.
Awaisheh SS, Haddadin MS, Robinson RK. Incorporation of selected nutraceuticals and probiotic bacteria into a fermented milk. International Dairy Journal. 2005; 15:1184–1191.
Chen TH, Wang SY, Chen KN, Liu JR, Chen M. Microbiological and chemical properties of kefir manufactured by entrapped microorganisms isolated from kefir grains. Journal of Dairy Science. 2009; 92:3002-3013.
Chen H-C, Wang SY, Chen MJ. Microbiological study of lactic acid bacteria in kefir grains by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Food Microbiology. 2008; 25:492–501.
COOK NC, Samman S. Flavonoids-chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. Journal of Nutrition Biochemistry. 1996; 7(2):66–76.
Church FC, Swaisgood HE, Porter DH. Spectrophotometric Assay Using o-Phthaldialdehyde for Determination of Proteolysis in Milk and Isolated Milk Proteins. Journal of Dairy Science. 1983; 66:1219-1227.
Davis JG. Cheese Manufacturing Methods. London, Churchill Livingstone; 1976.
Dimitrellou D, Tsaousi K, Kourkoutas Y, Panas P, Kanellaki M, Koutinas MM. Fermentation efficiency of thermally dried immobilized kefir on casein as starter culture. Process Biochemistry. 2008; 43:1323–1329.
Farnworth ER. Kefir- A complex probiotic. Food Science and Technology Bulletin. 2006; 2:1–17.
Gaware V, Kotade K, Dolas R, Dhamak K, Somwanshi S, Nikam V, Khadse A, Kashid V. The magic of kefir- A review. Pharmacology online. 2011; 1:376-386.
Goncu A, Alpkent Z. Sensory and chemical properties of white pickled cheese produced using kefir, yoghurt or a commercial cheese culture as a starter. International Dairy Journal. 2005; 15:771–776.
Hayaloglu AA, Guven M, Fox PF, Hannon JA, McSweeney PLH. Proteolysis in Turkish White-brined cheese made with defined strains of Lactococcus. International Dairy Journal. 2004; 14:599–610.
Irigoyen A, Arana I, Castiella M, Torre P, Ibanez F. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory characteristics of kefir during storage. Food Chemistry. 2005; 90:613–620.
Katechaki E, Panas P, Kourkoutas Y. Thermally-dried free and immobilized kefir cells as starter culture in hard-type cheese production. Bioresource Technology. 2009; 100:3618–3624.
Kivanc M, Yapıcı E. Kefir as a probiotic dairy beverage: determination lactic acid bacteria and yeast. International Journal of Food Engineering. 2015; 1(1):55-60.
Kourkoutas Y, Kandylis MPP, Panas JSG. Evaluation of freeze-dried kefir coculture as starter in Feta-type cheese production. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 2006; 72(9):6124–6135.
McCann KB, Shiell BJ, Michalski WP, Lee A, Wan J, Roginski H, Coventry MJ. Isolation and characterization of a novel antibacterial peptide from bovine αs1-casein. International Dairy Journal. 2006; 6:316-323.
Plessas S, Pherson L, Bekatorou A, Nigam P, Koutinas AA. Bread making using kefir grains as baker’s yeast. Food Chemistry. 2005; 93:585–589.
Savijoki K, Ingmer H, Varmanen P. Proteolytic systems of lactic acid bacteria. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2006; 71:394–406.
Winston JC. Health-promoting properties of common herbs. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1999; 70(3):491S-499S.
Zubillaga M, Weill R, Postaire E, Goldman C, Caro R, Boccio J. Effect of probiotics and functional foods and their use in different diseases. Nutrition Research. 2001; 21:569-579.